Classroom Rules – rule for effective teaching

A recent newspaper article identified that Inadequate training has left graduate teachers scrambling for advice from online education forums to help them run their classrooms.   Queensland Association of State School Principals president stated that inadequate teacher training was a massive problem.   The Sunday Mail, 1st February, 2009.

My own thoughts on this are: what is needed in teacher training programs is inclusion of effective classroom management strategies.  This is the area that has the biggest impact on whether a teacher is effective or ineffective.

My personal experience in the past with classroom management was that it varied depending on the nature of the students I was teaching.  Then I started to learn how I could be an effective teacher and by applying the principles in The First Days of School I became far more confident knowing that by implementing specific strategies it would take care of any discipline problems as well as make my classroom effective and much less stressful.   It seems obvious that teachers should have rules and procedures in the classroom for effective classroom management, but the skills of how to go about it are not always taught to trainee teachers.   Being able to manage a class without repeated interruptions from students, telling them over and over again (nagging) what they should be doing makes for stress-free teaching. Therefore the key to a dynamic learning environment for learning is to teach the kids the rules and procedures that apply in your classroom. Going into a classroom to teach without having these in place is asking for chaos and disorder.

The number one factor that leads to student achievement is classroom management.

Classroom management are those practices and procedures used to manage a classroom so that instruction and learning can take place.

The number one problem in education is not discipline. It is the lack of procedures and routines, the lack of a plan that organizes a classroom for success.

Harry Wong, Busy educator

Implementing rules and procedures in the classroom makes for an environment which is conducive to learning.  It embeds structure.   People expect rules and procedures for everything they do in life: crossing the road, waiting at traffic lights, going to the movies, waiting in line to be served, at a restaurant, work procedures etc, so teaching children the rules andprocedures they need to follow in class is giving them life skills as well as making teaching so much less stressful. When procedures are in place the teacher can focus on teaching. The students know automatically what needs to be done, when and how because you have taught them until they get it right.

Rules and procedures make for more effective teaching:

Identify classroom rules that you want to apply in your classroom and let your students know what they are as well as the consequences.  Rules can be posted as posters, powerpoint, a wiki, website and handouts. Post no more than 5 rules.  More is too many. Rules can be added to (when a rule is a habit it can be substituted with another new one).  Be consistent with applying the consequences.  Rules are about behaviour – therefore they carry penalties and rewards.

Then consider the Procedures you need to apply in your classroom. Procedures are the steps on how to do things, therefore they do not carry penalties.

State, explain, model and demonstrate the Procedure.

Rehearse, Practice and reinforce.

Keep reinforcing.   Students could keep a folder with procedures as they are introduced.   Eventually as students learn the correct procedures, when students don’t apply the procedures, other students will remind them. They don’t need to be all introduced at once, the first procedures to teach would include: entering the classroom, starting work, getting the class’s attention.  Others include:

Students leaving procedures

Walking in the hall procedures

Procedure if student finishes early

Getting the class’s attention

Quieting the class procedure

Listening to/responding to questions

Getting the teacher’s attention

Roll taking procedure

Collecting papers

Distributing papers

Disaster drill procedures

Lab use

How to ask questions

Handing in work

End of class/day dismissal procedures

And so on … you get the idea

An important procedure to implement is one whereby students start work as soon as they are seated:

When students usually enter a classroom, there is a settling in period.  They find their desks, finish their conversations and wait for the teacher to take the roll.  This takes away from valuable teaching time.  When students enter the classroom they need to get into a mindset for learning.

Your first priority when class starts is

to get the students to start work

P. 121, The First Days of School

The first thing students should do when seated is start a short assignment.  This may be revision work or other suitable exercise. It should be something they can complete without difficulty. This is to get them to settle down into work mode.  The work should be collected and viewed by the teacher but does not need grading.  This is a valuable way to use class time effectively rather than students entering and waiting whilst the teacher calls the roll and then getting them to settle. The teacher can mark the roll whilst students are completing their first task. If your students’s names are not yet familiar or you’re a substitute teacher, then a seating plan will enable you to do this.

In a well-managed class, students know what to expect.

Resources for Effective Teaching

Teachers.net has an incredible supply of resources for beginning and veteran teachers to learn more about effective teaching.  Some of my favourites are:

Ten Timely Tools for Success on the First Days of School

How to Start a Class Effectively

How to Start School Successfully

The Power of Procedures

Teaching Procedures is Teaching Expectations

Classroom Management applies to all teachers

The Problem is not Discpline

Never Cease to Learn

I’d thoroughly recommend The First Days of School which includes how to increase positive student behaviour, how to ensure students attain success in their assignments, how to develop professionally as well as other great strategies and techniques for preservice and new teachers as well as experienced teachers and administrators.

In summary, my five top tips that would greatly assist trainee teachers in managing classrooms are:

  1. Implement appropriate rules, consequences and rewards
  2. Implement procedures: inititally how to enter the room, start an assignment, call to attention and be dismissed (then additional procedures as identified).
  3. As part of 2 above, students start work as soon as they enter the classroom, to prepare a mindset for work and to utilise this time for learning instead of roll calling.
  4. Plan ahead: have the day or lesson’s work posted in a prominent place so students know that the teacher is prepared and they know what is going on.
  5. Have positive expectations.

I would like to see all newly qualified teachers equipped with these fundamental strategies to make their teaching from day one effective and remove the trauma that many of them experience.

If you wish to purchase The First Days of School, mention that you came across the book on my site and they will give you a $5 discount.

Image by szlea

7 Things

I’ve been tagged by Tomaz Lisac for the Meme ‘7 things you don’t know about me’.  This means I need to tell you seven things about myself (that you don’t need to know) and then tag seven educators to reveal their unknown things.  So here goes.

  1. I’m a vegetarian and have been since my teens. I hated meat as a youngster and remember having dinner-ladies stand over me as I tried to force pieces of gristle down my throat (I grew up in England and hot cooked meals were served at all schools).  People always ask does this make eating out difficult. Yes and no.  The best places to find vegetarian meals are indian, chinese and lebanese restaurants.  It annoys me when restaurants can only provide salads as an option and have never heard of tofu!
  2. I have twins, one of whom has Downs’ Syndrome.   When I was pregnant (and was told the facts) I was given the option of aborting him. Again in premature labour, I was given a similar option.   Yes, my son (now eight) is ‘behind’ in many ways compared to his twin brother.  However, he can walk, run, jump, swim, play the drums, fully communicate, love, cry, express concern, care and affection to anyone he meets.  He won’t be a brain surgeon but he will lead a full and purposeful life.
  3. My teachers at school had low expectations for me (which I fulfilled).    I left school early with few qualifications. I went to business college where I repeated my ‘o’ levels, excelled in my other subjects too and was encouraged by my college teachers to become a teacher.   I didn’t do it straight away but eventually did.
  4. I left college at 17 with a shorthand speed of 130 wpm and a typing speed of 80 wpm.  I was told I was over qualified for junior posts and too young for senior secretarial jobs.  After a few years in office jobs (including an embarrassingly short stint in the Navy), I realised I hated office work, took a part-time post as an evening tutor and went to teachers’ college (which I didn’t complete till several years later in another country).  I still feel proud that I fulfilled my post-school teachers’ high expectations.  I remember those teachers that believed in me and how they taught me to succeed.
  5. I loved teaching shorthand (my first teaching post was as a shorthand and typing teacher) and still use it today for note-taking, phone calls and another great use is that I can write confidential notes to myself!
  6. I prefer to use natural remedies whenever possible. It makes sense to identify the cause of any ailment rather than treating only the symptoms.
  7. To maintain a balance in my life, I make the time to pray and meditate every day.  I wake up early to have that quiet time; through prayer and meditation I am able to stay focused on what is important in life.

So here are my 7 nominees … I look forward to your ‘7 Things’.

Patricia Donaghy

Suzie Vesper

Ann Oro

Richard Byrne

Nancy Bosch

Pat Hensley

F Manning

Relief for Relief Teachers

If any teacher has ever relieved another teacher’s class, then they will have realised it is very different from having their own group of students and being well-prepared can make the day much less stressful.   As a relief teacher, there is very little time for planning and a phone call at 8 am in the morning can mean being in class at 8.45 am in an unfamiliar school with a group of students you have never met before.    The more notice you have the better.  If you can, arrive early to familiarise yourself with the school environment (ask for a map), the behaviour policy, and to photocopy your resources.  More great tips for making your day go smoothly are here.

I spent the latter part of the final term of 2008 as a relief teacher and have compiled tips and notes gained from my own insights and also those of other relief teachers.

Starting the day:

  1. have a subpack prepared at home to take with you (teachers.net provides a useful list)
  2. arrive on time
  3. dress professionally
  4. follow the lesson plan left by the classroom teacher
  5. have a backup plan ready

In the classroom

  1. Before students enter, write your name on the board.
  2. Identify if there are any class rules posted.
  3. Read through the class teacher’s lesson plan (and have backup work available).
  4. Be prepared to make a seating chart or prepare index cards (see No. 7).
  5. When the bell rings, greet the students at the door and welcome them in.
  6. Before calling the roll,  establish your rules for the class, for example, identify how you will call the class to attention (hold up your hand, ring a bell, clap), courtesy, behaviour etc.  Establish what will happen if the rules are broken (eg, name on board, three marks against names – report to office – or whatever is the school discipline policy).  Or devise a postive behaviour strategy which will work (see suggestion below: classroom management).
  7. Before calling the roll get students started on an appropriate task right away.  This is important to get them settled and focused for your lesson.    If you have time: in your resource pack have some index cards and blutac, write the students names on the cards and hand them round whilst they are completing their assignment task.  Get them to blutac them to the front of their desk. The remaining cards will be the absent students – now you can mark the roll, without interrupting the students working.   If you don’t have time to do this, hand cards round for students to write their own names.
  8. Leave a report for the classroom teacher at the end of the day. For more tips read The Effective Substitute Teacher.

Build up a collection of Emergency Resources

Depending on the age group that you are making yourself available to teach this may specific grades or even K-12.  Don’t totally rely on the class teacher to have work prepared for the class.  Even if work has been set for the class, students will use all sorts of excuses why they can’t do the work including they don’t have their textbooks or haven’t covered the work. SupplyBag.co.uk (a dedicated relief teacher site) has a wonderful collection of lesson plans available. Once you know the age group you are teaching, check out the emergency lesson plans for the appropriate age group.   Having a folder with resources for each grade  means you can quickly make photocopies before you enter the classroom.  Here are some excellent sites to start building your resource pack:   A to Z Teacher Stuff,   CEC Lesson Plans. Math worksheets on addition and subtraction for grades 1-6 can be printed out courtesy of Bargo Public School, NSW, Australia. Click on worksheets on the left of the page.

Games in the classroom

Have a collection of fun educational activities.

I found Education World: Substitute Survival: Mini Lessons for Unexpected Moments a valuable resource for ten great ideas for numeracy and literacy games for example:

Five-0 game (literacy for grades 3-12)

Break the class into teams of around four or five students so you end up with an even number of groups. Pair off the teams. Each team thinks of a five-letter word. Its partner team has to guess the word by writing a five-letter word. The opposition says how many letters are correct in the word, but not which ones. The teams alternate guessing their opponents’ words, and the first team to guess correctly wins. Example: Team 1’s word is clash; Team 2 guesses beach. Three letters are the same. Next, Team 1 guesses Team 2’s word. Then Team 2 guesses bingo — no correct letters. The groups continue alternating until one team figures out the other team’s word.

The full lesson plan is available here.

Numeracy brain teaser/puzzle (grades 3-12)

Motivation: Pose this question to students: “Suppose someone offered to pay you one penny on the first day of the month, then double your wages each day for 29 more days OR $1million to work on a special project. Which would you choose?” Solicit responses from students.

To make it more fun, have students work in groups and see which group can find the answer first.

The full lesson plan is available here.

Bing Game (Literacy K-12)

Another great find at Education World. This game is not quite bingo, just bing! Ask students to fold a sheet of paper into 16 squares (four columns of four boxes — unlike bingo, which has five by five). Have students write the numerals 1 to 16 randomly in the squares, one number to a square. Tell them to leave enough room in each box to write a word. You should also make a sheet, cut it up into numbered squares, and put them into a box or another kind of container. Draw a number from the container, and call it out along with a spelling word. Tell students to find that number on the grid and write the spelling word in that numbered square. Instruct students to shout “Bing!” when they have four words in a row horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. The winner isn’t the winner, however, until you check the spelling! Details for this Bing! activity can be found with other activities at Phil’s Place: Substitute Teachers Lesson Plan Page.

This game can be adjusted to suit the age group. Letters rather than spelling could be used for kindergarten kids progressing to more difficult spelling through the ages.

See also Ten Games for Lesson Fun and Games that Teach.

More tips and help at: Sub Station: Tips and Resources for Substitute Teachers. One activity I particularly liked for use in a relief teacher’s class was the Rock or Feather? critical thinking activity. A great way for the teacher to get to know the students and for them to recognise their personal traits.  On the worksheet students have to identify  whther they are more like a rock or a feather, summer or winter, the city or the country.  Combine movement by getting students to move to one side of the room or the other depending on their choice and then select students to explain their choice.

Additional Activities for Secondary Students

Students may have work they can can complete, otherwise if you are taking a class outside your subject area a writing task is always an area that students can improve on. Ideas include writing a letter to a newspaper on topics such as for or against homework, school uniforms,  a letter to their school newsletter on suggestions for improvements or changes.

All the above activities are assuming there is no access to computers.   After relief teaching in schools where I could not even get on a computer (no log in facility for guest teachers) I realised I needed to be fully prepared for this situation.  If you are fortunate enough to secure a computer room (it’s worth asking!) or have access to computers in the classroom here are more activities.

Computer Resources for Primary Students

 

Cool Math for Kids : GRADE 4+ Math games, addition, subtraction, number monster, long division, brain benders, times table, jigsaw puzzles, decimals, fractions, tessellations, monster mind reader (think of a number add it together eg 63 = 6+3, then subtract the answer from your original number and the monster will give you the answer eg 63 – 9 = 54 (look for the answer in the symbols on the left).

Games for the brain : Age range: upper primary/secondary.  Chinese checkers, chess, puzzles, memorise an image (then answer questions), image quiz, word games, guess the colours, guess the flags. Age range: upper primary/secondary.

BBC schools games: educational games for age ranges 4-11 yrs & 7-11 yrs & 11-16: literacy, numeracy, history, geography, science, art, history, quizzes; different levels can be selected for the age groups.

Kids Numbers: Lower and Upper Primary: addition and subtraction games.  It is possible to  identify the numbers within capability eg, addition or subtraction up to 10 or 100+

Kids Know It:Grade 4+:  Huge animal database, with hundreds of animals you have never seen before. Take a virtual trip to the zoo with the KidsKnowIt Network. Biology, Geography, spelling, educational music, Geology, History and memory activities.

Webquests:  Find a webquest, K-12.

National Geographic kids: excellent resources for Prep to upper primary: videos, stories, games, photos, activities, science, cartoons, people and places.

Writing ideas for upper primary:

  • The day I was born (research what happened that day and produce it as an information report).
  • Writing fun has examples of different text types eg, information report, procedure, recount, explanation, response, narrative, discussion, persuasive.The organizers can be downloaded as templates so students can use them for the type of writing they need to produce.

Computer Resources for Secondary Students

 

Games for the brain : Age range: upper primary/secondary.  Chinese checkers, chess, puzzles, memorise an image (then answer questions), image quiz, word games, guess the colours, guess the flags. Age range: upper primary/secondary.

BBC schools games: educational games for age ranges 4-11 yrs & 7-11 yrs & 11-16: literacy, numeracy, history, geography, science, art, history, quizzes; different levels can be selected for the age groups.

English resources

Take a career test for students to find out what career they are suited to.

Webquest for students to find out what career they are suited to.

Great ICT cover lessons available from ICT Teach: Cover lessons for DTP, SS, DB, WP, ICT.  Some are printable worksheets for class use without computer access.

Bob Brandis’ site on Relief  Teaching – fabulous resources including tips and ideas for relief teachers.

Managing behaviour (for the relief teacher)

1. Behaviour management is so much easier if you can call on students individually.  Asking their name when they are in trouble is likely to produce a false name!  Take in some index cards and blutac, get the students to write their name on the cards and blutac them to the front of their desk.  Another suggestion is draw  up a seating plan and enter the child’s name in it as you call the register. Use your seating plan to call on individuals.

2.  Let the class know at the beginning the standard of behaviour that is acceptable, at the same time let them know you are looking forward to doing some great work and having fun.  A great tip I came across is to take in a jar of lollies (check with the school that this is ok in case of allergies etc).  Tell the kids that good behaviour will be rewarded with being able to have a go at guessing how many lollies are in the jar (they will come up, write their name on the board and their ‘guess’). At the end of the day the lollies will be counted and whoever guessed the closest gets the lollies (to share with the class).  Some teachers may feel that it should not be necessary to bribe the class with external rewards and I agree, this is not something I would do with a regular class. However, I would keep it as an emergency strategy in time of need!

Although this post was written in part as a reflection of my relief experiences and provides useful resources for relief teachers, I hope non-relief teachers also find it helpful.

As a final note:

Librarian Chick: this wiki is an incredible resource bank of sites related to education and teaching.

Image by vsqz